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Uruguay Round Agreements

The economic reasons for the integration of agriculture within the GATT were as follows: it is generally accepted that dispute resolution procedures were strengthened by the Uruguay Round negotiations. There is now a single dispute resolution procedure covering all three sectors of goods, services and investment. This is reinforced by the revolutionary agricultural agreement. In short, the WTO is the common institutional framework for the implementation of trade relations between its members in the areas related to the agreements contained in the final act. Two years later, in December 1988, ministers met again in Montreal, Canada, to assess the progress made midway through. The aim was to clarify the agenda for the remaining two years, but the discussions ended in an impasse that was not resolved until officials met more calmly in Geneva in April. The agreement contains obligations regarding recognition requirements (for example. (B) to guarantee authorisations, licenses or certifications in the field of services. It promotes the recognition requirements obtained through harmonization and internationally agreed criteria. Other provisions provide that the parties are required to ensure that monopolies and exclusive service providers do not abuse their positions.

Restrictive business practices should be consulted between the parties for their elimination. The delay had some advantages. It has allowed some negotiations to go further than they would have been in 1990: for example, certain aspects of services and intellectual property and the creation of the WTO itself. But the task was immense and the fatigue of the negotiations was felt in the commercial bureaucracies of the world. The difficulty of reaching agreement on a comprehensive package containing almost all of the current trade issues has allowed some to conclude that negotiations of this magnitude would never again be possible. However, the Uruguay Round agreements contain timetables for further negotiations on a number of issues. And in 1996, some countries openly called for a new cycle at the beginning of the next century. The response was mixed; but the Marrakesh agreement already contained commitments to resume negotiations on agriculture and services at the turn of the century. They began in early 2000 and were included in the Doha Development Agenda at the end of 2001. The WTO is chaired by a ministerial conference that meets at least every two years, possibly with a general council meeting. The Ministerial Conference is made up of representatives from all WTO members and can make decisions on all issues within the framework of a multilateral trade agreement. The agreements for the two largest areas of the WTO, goods and services, share a three-part framework: GATT is still in place as a WTO framework agreement for trade in goods, which will be updated following the Uruguay Round negotiations (it will be updated between GATT 1994, the updated gaTT and GATT 1947 , the initial agreement, which is still at the heart of the 1994 GATT, distinguishing.

[10] However, the 1994 GATT is not the only legally binding agreement contained in the final deed; a long list of some 60 agreements, annexes, decisions and agreements has been adopted. Indeed, the agreements are divided into a simple structure of six main parts: Chapter 1 described the historical context of the round of negotiations in Uruguay and the issues that were at the centre of the cycle. In this appendix, we will discuss the agreement establishing the World Trade Organization (WTO). The 1986 Ministerial Declaration highlighted problems such as structural deficiencies, the impact of policies in some countries on the gatt.